Vascular inflammation during human rickettsioses

An essential host response and a potential target for supplemental therapy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Spotted fever rickettsioses due to Rickettsia rickettsii and R. conorii and epidemic typhus caused by R. prowazekii have been known to humankind since the beginning of the 20th century. Alarmingly, new species/subspecies of arthropod-borne rickettsiae are still being recognized and described as globally emerging pathogens. The genus Rickettsia includes obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria with affinity to infect vascular endothelium of small and medium-sized blood vessels in humans. Endothelial cells, key immunoreactive cells involved in host defense and inflammation, are intimately involved in the manifestations of rickettsial infections. The present review features the current understanding of cell signaling, host response, and apoptotic death mechanisms during in vitro infection of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells or endothelial-like cell lines with pathogenic rickettsiae and summarizes critical roles for infection-induced oxidative stress, nuclear factor-kappa B, and p38 MAP kinase pathways in the regulation of innate immune responses and in preventing apoptosis early during infection to ensure host cell survival for rickettsial replication/spread. However, in the context of emerging concept of 'endothelial heterogeneity', the existing knowledge pertaining to the interactions of these unique intracellular pathogens with endothelial cells of different vascular beds remains in its infancy. A complete definition of signaling interactions between organ-specific host endothelial cells and strains of varying virulence and further detailed characterization of direct in vivo models of disseminated vascular infection represent major steps in advancing our depth of understanding of rickettsial pathogenesis, which should allow the development of novel anti-inflammatory strategies to combat the pathologic sequelae of debilitating human rickettsioses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)203-213
Number of pages11
JournalAnti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Blood Vessels
Rickettsia
Inflammation
Endothelial Cells
Infection
Rickettsia rickettsii
Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus
Tunica Media
Therapeutics
Proteobacteria
Arthropods
MAP Kinase Signaling System
NF-kappa B
Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Vascular Endothelium
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Innate Immunity
Virulence
Cell Survival
Oxidative Stress

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Chemokine
  • Cytokine
  • MAP kinase
  • Nuclear factor-kappaB
  • Oxidative stress
  • Rickettsia
  • Vascular endothelium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

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abstract = "Spotted fever rickettsioses due to Rickettsia rickettsii and R. conorii and epidemic typhus caused by R. prowazekii have been known to humankind since the beginning of the 20th century. Alarmingly, new species/subspecies of arthropod-borne rickettsiae are still being recognized and described as globally emerging pathogens. The genus Rickettsia includes obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria with affinity to infect vascular endothelium of small and medium-sized blood vessels in humans. Endothelial cells, key immunoreactive cells involved in host defense and inflammation, are intimately involved in the manifestations of rickettsial infections. The present review features the current understanding of cell signaling, host response, and apoptotic death mechanisms during in vitro infection of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells or endothelial-like cell lines with pathogenic rickettsiae and summarizes critical roles for infection-induced oxidative stress, nuclear factor-kappa B, and p38 MAP kinase pathways in the regulation of innate immune responses and in preventing apoptosis early during infection to ensure host cell survival for rickettsial replication/spread. However, in the context of emerging concept of 'endothelial heterogeneity', the existing knowledge pertaining to the interactions of these unique intracellular pathogens with endothelial cells of different vascular beds remains in its infancy. A complete definition of signaling interactions between organ-specific host endothelial cells and strains of varying virulence and further detailed characterization of direct in vivo models of disseminated vascular infection represent major steps in advancing our depth of understanding of rickettsial pathogenesis, which should allow the development of novel anti-inflammatory strategies to combat the pathologic sequelae of debilitating human rickettsioses.",
keywords = "Apoptosis, Chemokine, Cytokine, MAP kinase, Nuclear factor-kappaB, Oxidative stress, Rickettsia, Vascular endothelium",
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AB - Spotted fever rickettsioses due to Rickettsia rickettsii and R. conorii and epidemic typhus caused by R. prowazekii have been known to humankind since the beginning of the 20th century. Alarmingly, new species/subspecies of arthropod-borne rickettsiae are still being recognized and described as globally emerging pathogens. The genus Rickettsia includes obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria with affinity to infect vascular endothelium of small and medium-sized blood vessels in humans. Endothelial cells, key immunoreactive cells involved in host defense and inflammation, are intimately involved in the manifestations of rickettsial infections. The present review features the current understanding of cell signaling, host response, and apoptotic death mechanisms during in vitro infection of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells or endothelial-like cell lines with pathogenic rickettsiae and summarizes critical roles for infection-induced oxidative stress, nuclear factor-kappa B, and p38 MAP kinase pathways in the regulation of innate immune responses and in preventing apoptosis early during infection to ensure host cell survival for rickettsial replication/spread. However, in the context of emerging concept of 'endothelial heterogeneity', the existing knowledge pertaining to the interactions of these unique intracellular pathogens with endothelial cells of different vascular beds remains in its infancy. A complete definition of signaling interactions between organ-specific host endothelial cells and strains of varying virulence and further detailed characterization of direct in vivo models of disseminated vascular infection represent major steps in advancing our depth of understanding of rickettsial pathogenesis, which should allow the development of novel anti-inflammatory strategies to combat the pathologic sequelae of debilitating human rickettsioses.

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