Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the most plentiful neuropeptides in the lung and it has anti-inflammatory effects in the respiratory system. Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) and triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2) regulate immune responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the present study, we tested the expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 in various pulmonary cell lines and/or tissue using an animal model of LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI), and determined the effects of VIP on expression of the TREM-1 and TREM-2 in lung tissues and cells from ALI mice. We found 1) expression of the TREM-1 mRNA from lung tissues of ALI was significantly increased, whereas the expression of TREM-2 mRNA was decreased in these tissues; 2) TREM-1 mRNA was only expressed in macrophages, while TREM-2 mRNA was detected in HBECs, lung fibroblasts, lung adenocarcinoma cells and macrophages; 3) the ratio of TREM-1 mRNA to TREM-2 mRNA was increased in LPS-induced lung tissues and macrophages; 4) VIP inhibited expression of the TREM-1 mRNA in a time- and dose-dependent manner in lung cells from LPS-induced ALI mice; however, it increased expression of the TREM-2 mRNA. As a result of these effects, VIP normalized the ratio of TREM-1 to TREM-2 mRNA in these cells. Our results suggest that VIP might exert its anti-inflammatory effect through a mechanism involved in regulation of expression of the TREM-1 and TREM-2 in LPS-induced ALI.
- Acute lung injury
- Vasoactive intestinal peptide
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience