Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis

Scott Weaver, Cristina Ferro, Roberto Barrera, Jorge Boshell, Juan Carlos Navarro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

241 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) remains a naturally emerging disease threat as well as a highly developed biological weapon. Recently, progress has been made in understanding the complex ecological and viral genetic mechanisms that coincide in time and space to generate outbreaks. Enzootic, equine avirulent, serotype ID VEEV strains appear to alter their serotype to IAB or IC, and their vertebrate and mosquito host range, to mediate repeated VEE emergence via mutations in the E2 envelope glycoprotein that represent convergent evolution. Adaptation to equines results in highly efficient amplification, which results in human disease. Although epizootic VEEV strains are opportunistic in their use of mosquito vectors, the most widespread outbreaks appear to involve specific adaptation to Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus, the most common vector in many coastal areas. In contrast, enzootic VEEV strains are highly specialized and appear to utilize vectors exclusively in the Spissipes section of the Culex (Melanoconion) subgenus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)141-174
Number of pages34
JournalAnnual Review of Entomology
Volume49
DOIs
StatePublished - 2004

Fingerprint

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
encephalitis
virus
horses
Culicidae
serotypes
mosquito
Ochlerotatus
microbial genetics
biological weapon
Culex
convergent evolution
emerging diseases
human diseases
host range
space and time
eclosion
glycoproteins
vertebrates
mutation

Keywords

  • Alphavirus
  • Arbovirus
  • Emergence
  • Mosquito
  • Vector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science

Cite this

Weaver, S., Ferro, C., Barrera, R., Boshell, J., & Navarro, J. C. (2004). Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis. Annual Review of Entomology, 49, 141-174. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.49.061802.123422

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis. / Weaver, Scott; Ferro, Cristina; Barrera, Roberto; Boshell, Jorge; Navarro, Juan Carlos.

In: Annual Review of Entomology, Vol. 49, 2004, p. 141-174.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Weaver, S, Ferro, C, Barrera, R, Boshell, J & Navarro, JC 2004, 'Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis', Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 49, pp. 141-174. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.49.061802.123422
Weaver, Scott ; Ferro, Cristina ; Barrera, Roberto ; Boshell, Jorge ; Navarro, Juan Carlos. / Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis. In: Annual Review of Entomology. 2004 ; Vol. 49. pp. 141-174.
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