Viral and Cellular mRNA Translation in Coronavirus-Infected Cells

K. Nakagawa, K. G. Lokugamage, S. Makino

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Coronaviruses have large positive-strand RNA genomes that are 5' capped and 3' polyadenylated. The 5'-terminal two-thirds of the genome contain two open reading frames (ORFs), 1a and 1b, that together make up the viral replicase gene and encode two large polyproteins that are processed by viral proteases into 15-16 nonstructural proteins, most of them being involved in viral RNA synthesis. ORFs located in the 3'-terminal one-third of the genome encode structural and accessory proteins and are expressed from a set of 5' leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs that are synthesized by a process called discontinuous transcription. Coronavirus protein synthesis not only involves cap-dependent translation mechanisms but also employs regulatory mechanisms, such as ribosomal frameshifting. Coronavirus replication is known to affect cellular translation, involving activation of stress-induced signaling pathways, and employing viral proteins that affect cellular mRNA translation and RNA stability. This chapter describes our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in coronavirus mRNA translation and changes in host mRNA translation observed in coronavirus-infected cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)165-192
Number of pages28
JournalAdvances in Virus Research
Volume96
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Coronavirus
Protein Biosynthesis
RNA Stability
Genome
Open Reading Frames
RNA Caps
Ribosomal Frameshifting
Polyproteins
Proteins
Viral Genes
Viral RNA
Viral Proteins
Peptide Hydrolases
Messenger RNA

Keywords

  • Coronaviruses
  • Host gene expression
  • Host shutoff
  • Ribosomal frameshift
  • Stress response
  • Translation
  • Viral gene expression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

Cite this

Viral and Cellular mRNA Translation in Coronavirus-Infected Cells. / Nakagawa, K.; Lokugamage, K. G.; Makino, S.

In: Advances in Virus Research, Vol. 96, 2016, p. 165-192.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Nakagawa, K. ; Lokugamage, K. G. ; Makino, S. / Viral and Cellular mRNA Translation in Coronavirus-Infected Cells. In: Advances in Virus Research. 2016 ; Vol. 96. pp. 165-192.
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