Virulence determinants of West Nile virus: How can these be used for vaccine design?

Jaclyn A. Kaiser, Tian Wang, Alan D.T. Barrett

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus, has become endemic in the USA and parts of Europe since 1999. There is no licensed WNV vaccine for humans. Considering the robust immunity from immunization with live, attenuated vaccines, a live WNV vaccine is an ideal platform for disease control. Animal and mosquito studies have identified a number of candidate attenuating mutations, including the structural proteins premembrane/membrane and envelope, and the nonstructural proteins NS1, NS2A, NS3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5, and the 3′ UTR. Many of the mutations that have been examined attenuate WNV using different mechanisms, thus providing a greater understanding of WNV virulence while also identifying specific mutations as candidates to include in a WNV live vaccine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)283-295
Number of pages13
JournalFuture Virology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2017


  • West Nile virus
  • attenuation
  • flavivirus
  • live attenuated vaccine
  • virulence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology


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