Vitamin A modifies the intestinal chemokine and cytokine responses to norovirus infection in mexican children

Kurt Z. Long, Coralith Garcia, Gwang Pyo Ko, Jose I. Santos, Abdullah Al Mamun, Jorge L. Rosado, Herbert L. DuPont, Nanda Nathakumar

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14 Scopus citations


Vitamin A supplementation is associated with divergent clinical norovirus (NoV) outcomes in Mexican children. Fecal cytokine concentrations following NoV genogroup infections among 127 Mexican children 5-15 mo old enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, vitamin A supplementation trial were determined to clarify the role the gut immune response plays in these associations. Stools collected from supplemented children [20,000 IU retinol (3.3 IU = 1 μg retinol) for children < 12 mo of age; 45,000 IU for children ≥ 12 mo] or children in the placebo group were screened for NoV genogroups I (GI) and II (GII). Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), TNFα, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, IFNγ, and IL-10 fecal concentrations were also determined. Differences in cytokine levels between the 2 groups following GI and GII infections were determined using ordered logistic regression models. MCP-1 and IL-8 levels were greater among GI- and GII-infected children, respectively, compared with uninfected children, whereas IL-5 levels were greater following both genogroup infections. MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-6 fecal levels were reduced among supplemented children with GII-associated diarrhea compared with the placebo group. Vitamin A-supplemented, GII-infected children had reduced MCP-1 and TNFα levels compared with GII-infected children in the placebo group (P-interaction = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Supplemented children with GI-associated diarrhea had higher TNFα and IL-4 levels compared with children in the placebo group with diarrhea (P-interaction = 0.02 and 0.02, respectively). The divergent effects of supplementation on NoV outcomes may result from the different effects vitamin A has on the genogroup-specific immune responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)957-963
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2011


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Long, K. Z., Garcia, C., Ko, G. P., Santos, J. I., Mamun, A. A., Rosado, J. L., DuPont, H. L., & Nathakumar, N. (2011). Vitamin A modifies the intestinal chemokine and cytokine responses to norovirus infection in mexican children. Journal of Nutrition, 141(5), 957-963.