Background: The distribution and elimination of 0.9% saline given by intravenous infusion has not been compared between the conscious state and during inhalational anesthesia. Methods: Six adult sheep received an intravenous infusion of 25 ml/kg of 0.9% saline over 20 min in the conscious state and also during isoflurane anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. The distribution and elimination of infused fluid were studied by volume kinetics based on serial analysis of hemoglobin dilution in arterial blood and by mass balance that incorporated volume calculations derived from volume kinetic analysis and measurements of urinary volumes. Results: The mass balance calculations indicated only minor differences in the time course of plasma volume expansion between the conscious and anesthetized states. However, isoflurane anesthesia markedly reduced urinary volume (median, 9 vs. 863 ml; P < 0.03). In conscious sheep, the central and peripheral volume expansion predicted by volume kinetics agreed well with the calculations based on mass balance. However, during isoflurane anesthesia and mechanical ventilation, calculation using volume kinetic analysis of the variable kr, an elimination factor that, in conscious humans and sheep, is closely related to urinary excretion, represented both urinary excretion and peripheral accumulation of fluid. This suggests that the previous assumption that kr approximates urinary excretion of infused fluid requires modification, i.e., kr simply reflects net fluid movement out of plasma. Conclusions: In both conscious and anesthetized, mechanically ventilated sheep, infusion of 0.9% saline resulted in minimal expansion of plasma volume over a 3-h interval. In conscious sheep, infused 0.9% saline was rapidly eliminated from the plasma volume by urinary excretion; in contrast, the combination of isoflurane anesthesia and mechanical ventilation reduced urinary excretion and promoted peripheral accumulation of fluid.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine