Wartime traumatic cerebral vasospasm: Recent review of combat casualties

Rocco A. Armonda, Randy S. Bell, Alexander Vo, Geoffrey Ling, Thomas J. DeGraba, Benjamin Crandall, James Ecklund, William W. Campbell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

189 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Blast-related neurotrauma is associated with the severest casualties from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). A consequence of this is cerebral vasospasm. This study evaluated all inpatient neurosurgical consults related to battle injury from OIF. METHODS: Evaluation of all admissions from OIF from April 2003 to October 2005 was performed on patients with neurotrauma and a diagnostic cerebral angiogram. Differences between patients with and without vasospasm and predictors of vasospasm were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty-seven out of 119 neurosurgical consults were evaluated. Of these, 47.4% had traumatic vasospasm; 86.7% of patients without vasospasm and 80.8% of patients with vasospasm sustained blast trauma. Average spasm duration was 14.3 days, with a range of up to 30 days. Vasospasm was associated with the presence of pseudoaneurysm (P = 0.05), hemorrhage (P = 0.03), the number of lobes injured (P = 0.012), and mortality (P = 0.029). Those with vasospasm fared worse than those without (P = 0.002). The number of lobes injured and the presence of pseudoaneurysm were significant predictors of vasospasm (P = 0.016 and 0.02, respectively). There was a significant quadratic trend towards neurological improvement for those receiving aggressive open surgical treatment (P = 0.002). In the vasospasm group, angioplasty with microballoon significantly lowered middle cerebral artery and basilar blood-flow velocities(P = 0.046 and 0.026, respectively). CONCLUSION: Traumatic vasospasm occurred in a substantial number of patients with severe neurotrauma, and clinical outcomes were worse for those with this condition. However, aggressive open surgical and endovascular treatment strategies may have improved outcome. This was the first study to analyze the effects of blast-related injury on the cerebral vasculature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1215-1225
Number of pages11
JournalNeurosurgery
Volume59
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2006

Fingerprint

2003-2011 Iraq War
Intracranial Vasospasm
False Aneurysm
Blast Injuries
Blood Flow Velocity
Middle Cerebral Artery
Wounds and Injuries
Spasm
Angioplasty
Inpatients
Angiography
Hemorrhage
Mortality
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Angiography
  • Angioplasty
  • Blast
  • Iraq
  • Pseudoaneurysm
  • Vasospasm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery

Cite this

Armonda, R. A., Bell, R. S., Vo, A., Ling, G., DeGraba, T. J., Crandall, B., ... Campbell, W. W. (2006). Wartime traumatic cerebral vasospasm: Recent review of combat casualties. Neurosurgery, 59(6), 1215-1225. https://doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000249190.46033.94

Wartime traumatic cerebral vasospasm : Recent review of combat casualties. / Armonda, Rocco A.; Bell, Randy S.; Vo, Alexander; Ling, Geoffrey; DeGraba, Thomas J.; Crandall, Benjamin; Ecklund, James; Campbell, William W.

In: Neurosurgery, Vol. 59, No. 6, 12.2006, p. 1215-1225.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Armonda, RA, Bell, RS, Vo, A, Ling, G, DeGraba, TJ, Crandall, B, Ecklund, J & Campbell, WW 2006, 'Wartime traumatic cerebral vasospasm: Recent review of combat casualties', Neurosurgery, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 1215-1225. https://doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000249190.46033.94
Armonda, Rocco A. ; Bell, Randy S. ; Vo, Alexander ; Ling, Geoffrey ; DeGraba, Thomas J. ; Crandall, Benjamin ; Ecklund, James ; Campbell, William W. / Wartime traumatic cerebral vasospasm : Recent review of combat casualties. In: Neurosurgery. 2006 ; Vol. 59, No. 6. pp. 1215-1225.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVE: Blast-related neurotrauma is associated with the severest casualties from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). A consequence of this is cerebral vasospasm. This study evaluated all inpatient neurosurgical consults related to battle injury from OIF. METHODS: Evaluation of all admissions from OIF from April 2003 to October 2005 was performed on patients with neurotrauma and a diagnostic cerebral angiogram. Differences between patients with and without vasospasm and predictors of vasospasm were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty-seven out of 119 neurosurgical consults were evaluated. Of these, 47.4{\%} had traumatic vasospasm; 86.7{\%} of patients without vasospasm and 80.8{\%} of patients with vasospasm sustained blast trauma. Average spasm duration was 14.3 days, with a range of up to 30 days. Vasospasm was associated with the presence of pseudoaneurysm (P = 0.05), hemorrhage (P = 0.03), the number of lobes injured (P = 0.012), and mortality (P = 0.029). Those with vasospasm fared worse than those without (P = 0.002). The number of lobes injured and the presence of pseudoaneurysm were significant predictors of vasospasm (P = 0.016 and 0.02, respectively). There was a significant quadratic trend towards neurological improvement for those receiving aggressive open surgical treatment (P = 0.002). In the vasospasm group, angioplasty with microballoon significantly lowered middle cerebral artery and basilar blood-flow velocities(P = 0.046 and 0.026, respectively). CONCLUSION: Traumatic vasospasm occurred in a substantial number of patients with severe neurotrauma, and clinical outcomes were worse for those with this condition. However, aggressive open surgical and endovascular treatment strategies may have improved outcome. This was the first study to analyze the effects of blast-related injury on the cerebral vasculature.",
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AU - Armonda, Rocco A.

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AB - OBJECTIVE: Blast-related neurotrauma is associated with the severest casualties from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). A consequence of this is cerebral vasospasm. This study evaluated all inpatient neurosurgical consults related to battle injury from OIF. METHODS: Evaluation of all admissions from OIF from April 2003 to October 2005 was performed on patients with neurotrauma and a diagnostic cerebral angiogram. Differences between patients with and without vasospasm and predictors of vasospasm were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty-seven out of 119 neurosurgical consults were evaluated. Of these, 47.4% had traumatic vasospasm; 86.7% of patients without vasospasm and 80.8% of patients with vasospasm sustained blast trauma. Average spasm duration was 14.3 days, with a range of up to 30 days. Vasospasm was associated with the presence of pseudoaneurysm (P = 0.05), hemorrhage (P = 0.03), the number of lobes injured (P = 0.012), and mortality (P = 0.029). Those with vasospasm fared worse than those without (P = 0.002). The number of lobes injured and the presence of pseudoaneurysm were significant predictors of vasospasm (P = 0.016 and 0.02, respectively). There was a significant quadratic trend towards neurological improvement for those receiving aggressive open surgical treatment (P = 0.002). In the vasospasm group, angioplasty with microballoon significantly lowered middle cerebral artery and basilar blood-flow velocities(P = 0.046 and 0.026, respectively). CONCLUSION: Traumatic vasospasm occurred in a substantial number of patients with severe neurotrauma, and clinical outcomes were worse for those with this condition. However, aggressive open surgical and endovascular treatment strategies may have improved outcome. This was the first study to analyze the effects of blast-related injury on the cerebral vasculature.

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