West Nile virus infection in birds and mosquitoes, New York State, 2000

Kristen A. Bernard, Joseph G. Maffei, Susan A. Jones, Elizabeth B. Kauffman, Gregory D. Ebel, Alan P. Dupuis, Kiet A. Ngo, David C. Nicholas, Donna M. Young, Pei Yong Shi, Varuni L. Kulasekera, Millicent Eidson, Dennis J. White, Ward B. Stone, P. Bryon Backenson, Ivan Gotham, Yoichiro Hagiwara, Geraldine S. Johnson, Gary Lukacik, Kathryn SchmitAmy L. Willsey, Laura D. Kramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

224 Scopus citations


West Nile (WN) virus was found throughout New York State in 2000, with the epicenter in New York City and surrounding counties. We tested 3,403 dead birds and 9,954 mosquito pools for WN virus during the transmission season. Sixty-three avian species, representing 30 families and 14 orders, tested positive for WN virus. The highest proportion of dead birds that tested positive for WN virus was in American Crows in the epicenter (67% positive, n=907). Eight mosquito species, representing four genera, were positive for WN virus. The minimum infection rate per 1,000 mosquitoes (MIR) was highest for Culex pipiens in the epicenter: 3.53 for the entire season and 7.49 for the peak week of August 13. Staten Island had the highest MIR (11.42 for Cx. pipiens), which was associated with the highest proportion of dead American Crows that tested positive for WN virus (92%, n=48) and the highest number of human cases (n=10).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)679-685
Number of pages7
JournalEmerging infectious diseases
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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