Whey Protein Hydrolysate Increases Amino Acid Uptake, mTORC1 Signaling, and Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle of Healthy Young Men in a Randomized Crossover Trial

Tatiana Moro, Camille R. Brightwell, Brenda Velarde, Christopher Fry, Kyosuke Nakayama, Chiaki Sanbongi, Elena Volpi, Blake Rasmussen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) can be stimulated by ingestion of protein sources, such as whey, casein, or soy. Protein supplementation can enhance muscle protein synthesis after exercise and may preserve skeletal muscle mass and function in aging adults. Therefore, identifying protein sources with higher anabolic potency is of high significance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the anabolic potency and efficacy of a novel whey protein hydrolysate mixture (WPH) on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and skeletal MPS in healthy young subjects. METHODS: Ten young men (aged 28.7 ± 3.6 y, 25.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2 body mass index [BMI]) were recruited into a double-blind two-way crossover trial. Subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 g/kg of body weight (BW) of WPH or an intact whey protein (WHEY) mixture during stable isotope infusion experiments. Fractional synthetic rate, leucine and phenylalanine kinetics, and markers of amino acid sensing were assessed as primary outcomes before and 1-3 h after protein ingestion using a repeated measures mixed model. RESULTS: Blood leucine concentration, delivery of leucine to muscle, transport of leucine from blood into muscle and intracellular muscle leucine concentration significantly increased to a similar extent 1 h after ingestion of both mixtures (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of S6K1 (i.e. a marker of mTORC1 activation) increased equally by ∼20% 1-h postingestion (P < 0.05). Ingestion of WPH and WHEY increased mixed MPS similarly in both groups by ∼43% (P < 0.05); however, phenylalanine utilization for synthesis increased in both treatments 1-h postingestion but remained elevated 3-h postingestion only in the WPH group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a small dose of WPH effectively increases leucine transport into muscle, activating mTORC1 and stimulating MPS in young men. WPH anabolic potency and efficacy for promoting overall muscle protein anabolism is similar to WHEY, an intact protein source. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03313830.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1149-1158
Number of pages10
JournalThe Journal of nutrition
Volume149
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019

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Protein Hydrolysates
Muscle Proteins
Cross-Over Studies
Leucine
Skeletal Muscle
Amino Acids
Eating
Proteins
Muscles
Phenylalanine
Caseins
mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1
Whey Proteins
Isotopes
Healthy Volunteers
Body Mass Index
Body Weight
Phosphorylation
Exercise

Keywords

  • amino acid transport
  • anabolic signaling
  • human muscle protein turnover
  • hyperaminoacidemia
  • leucine
  • muscle protein anabolism
  • whey protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Whey Protein Hydrolysate Increases Amino Acid Uptake, mTORC1 Signaling, and Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle of Healthy Young Men in a Randomized Crossover Trial. / Moro, Tatiana; Brightwell, Camille R.; Velarde, Brenda; Fry, Christopher; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake.

In: The Journal of nutrition, Vol. 149, No. 7, 01.07.2019, p. 1149-1158.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) can be stimulated by ingestion of protein sources, such as whey, casein, or soy. Protein supplementation can enhance muscle protein synthesis after exercise and may preserve skeletal muscle mass and function in aging adults. Therefore, identifying protein sources with higher anabolic potency is of high significance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the anabolic potency and efficacy of a novel whey protein hydrolysate mixture (WPH) on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and skeletal MPS in healthy young subjects. METHODS: Ten young men (aged 28.7 ± 3.6 y, 25.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2 body mass index [BMI]) were recruited into a double-blind two-way crossover trial. Subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 g/kg of body weight (BW) of WPH or an intact whey protein (WHEY) mixture during stable isotope infusion experiments. Fractional synthetic rate, leucine and phenylalanine kinetics, and markers of amino acid sensing were assessed as primary outcomes before and 1-3 h after protein ingestion using a repeated measures mixed model. RESULTS: Blood leucine concentration, delivery of leucine to muscle, transport of leucine from blood into muscle and intracellular muscle leucine concentration significantly increased to a similar extent 1 h after ingestion of both mixtures (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of S6K1 (i.e. a marker of mTORC1 activation) increased equally by ∼20{\%} 1-h postingestion (P < 0.05). Ingestion of WPH and WHEY increased mixed MPS similarly in both groups by ∼43{\%} (P < 0.05); however, phenylalanine utilization for synthesis increased in both treatments 1-h postingestion but remained elevated 3-h postingestion only in the WPH group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a small dose of WPH effectively increases leucine transport into muscle, activating mTORC1 and stimulating MPS in young men. WPH anabolic potency and efficacy for promoting overall muscle protein anabolism is similar to WHEY, an intact protein source. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03313830.",
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T1 - Whey Protein Hydrolysate Increases Amino Acid Uptake, mTORC1 Signaling, and Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle of Healthy Young Men in a Randomized Crossover Trial

AU - Moro, Tatiana

AU - Brightwell, Camille R.

AU - Velarde, Brenda

AU - Fry, Christopher

AU - Nakayama, Kyosuke

AU - Sanbongi, Chiaki

AU - Volpi, Elena

AU - Rasmussen, Blake

PY - 2019/7/1

Y1 - 2019/7/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) can be stimulated by ingestion of protein sources, such as whey, casein, or soy. Protein supplementation can enhance muscle protein synthesis after exercise and may preserve skeletal muscle mass and function in aging adults. Therefore, identifying protein sources with higher anabolic potency is of high significance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the anabolic potency and efficacy of a novel whey protein hydrolysate mixture (WPH) on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and skeletal MPS in healthy young subjects. METHODS: Ten young men (aged 28.7 ± 3.6 y, 25.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2 body mass index [BMI]) were recruited into a double-blind two-way crossover trial. Subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 g/kg of body weight (BW) of WPH or an intact whey protein (WHEY) mixture during stable isotope infusion experiments. Fractional synthetic rate, leucine and phenylalanine kinetics, and markers of amino acid sensing were assessed as primary outcomes before and 1-3 h after protein ingestion using a repeated measures mixed model. RESULTS: Blood leucine concentration, delivery of leucine to muscle, transport of leucine from blood into muscle and intracellular muscle leucine concentration significantly increased to a similar extent 1 h after ingestion of both mixtures (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of S6K1 (i.e. a marker of mTORC1 activation) increased equally by ∼20% 1-h postingestion (P < 0.05). Ingestion of WPH and WHEY increased mixed MPS similarly in both groups by ∼43% (P < 0.05); however, phenylalanine utilization for synthesis increased in both treatments 1-h postingestion but remained elevated 3-h postingestion only in the WPH group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a small dose of WPH effectively increases leucine transport into muscle, activating mTORC1 and stimulating MPS in young men. WPH anabolic potency and efficacy for promoting overall muscle protein anabolism is similar to WHEY, an intact protein source. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03313830.

AB - BACKGROUND: Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) can be stimulated by ingestion of protein sources, such as whey, casein, or soy. Protein supplementation can enhance muscle protein synthesis after exercise and may preserve skeletal muscle mass and function in aging adults. Therefore, identifying protein sources with higher anabolic potency is of high significance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the anabolic potency and efficacy of a novel whey protein hydrolysate mixture (WPH) on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and skeletal MPS in healthy young subjects. METHODS: Ten young men (aged 28.7 ± 3.6 y, 25.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2 body mass index [BMI]) were recruited into a double-blind two-way crossover trial. Subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 g/kg of body weight (BW) of WPH or an intact whey protein (WHEY) mixture during stable isotope infusion experiments. Fractional synthetic rate, leucine and phenylalanine kinetics, and markers of amino acid sensing were assessed as primary outcomes before and 1-3 h after protein ingestion using a repeated measures mixed model. RESULTS: Blood leucine concentration, delivery of leucine to muscle, transport of leucine from blood into muscle and intracellular muscle leucine concentration significantly increased to a similar extent 1 h after ingestion of both mixtures (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of S6K1 (i.e. a marker of mTORC1 activation) increased equally by ∼20% 1-h postingestion (P < 0.05). Ingestion of WPH and WHEY increased mixed MPS similarly in both groups by ∼43% (P < 0.05); however, phenylalanine utilization for synthesis increased in both treatments 1-h postingestion but remained elevated 3-h postingestion only in the WPH group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a small dose of WPH effectively increases leucine transport into muscle, activating mTORC1 and stimulating MPS in young men. WPH anabolic potency and efficacy for promoting overall muscle protein anabolism is similar to WHEY, an intact protein source. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03313830.

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KW - anabolic signaling

KW - human muscle protein turnover

KW - hyperaminoacidemia

KW - leucine

KW - muscle protein anabolism

KW - whey protein

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