Immunosuppressed (cyclophosphamide) adult golden hamsters inoculated intraperitoneally (IP) with wild-type Asibi yellow fever virus (YFV) developed a rapidly fatal illness. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies of tissues from these animals showed typical hepatic changes of severe yellow fever (inflammation, hepatocyte necrosis, and steatosis) without brain involvement. In contrast, 50% of immunosuppressed hamsters receiving the YFV-17D-attenuated vaccine developed a slowly progressive encephalitic-type illness. Brain tissue from these latter animals revealed focal neuronal changes, inflammation, and YFV antigen-positive neurons; however, the liver and spleen appeared normal. YFV was isolated from brain cultures of many of these animals. Immunocompetent (non-immunosuppressed) hamsters inoculated with both viruses developed a subclinical infection. Results of this study indicate that wild-type YFV is hepatotropic in immunosuppressed hamsters, whereas the attenuated YFV-17 is primarily neurotropic. These findings support current recommendations against yellow fever vaccination of immunosuppressed/immunocompromised people and suggest that this hamster model might be useful for monitoring the safety of other live-attenuated YFV vaccines.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases