Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototype member of the genus Flavivirus, a group of viruses that are transmitted between vertebrates by arthropod vectors. The virus is found in tropical regions of Africa and South America and is transmitted to primates by mosquitoes: Aedes spp. in Africa and Haemagogus and Sabethes spp. in South America. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, yellow fever (YF) is considered a reemerging disease owing to its increased incidence in the past 25 years. Molecular epidemiologic data suggest there are seven genotypes of YFV that are geographically separated, and outbreaks of disease are more associated with particular genotypes. In addition, the risk of urban YF, owing to transmission of the virus by Aedes aegypti, is increasing in Africa, as is the potential of urban YF returning to South America. Both present serious potential public health problems to large population centers.