Yellow Fever: Roles of Animal Models and Arthropod Vector Studies in Understanding Epidemic Emergence

Divya P. Shinde, Jessica A. Plante, Kenneth S. Plante, Scott C. Weaver

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa and South America. It is responsible for an estimated 30,000 deaths annually, and while there is a highly successful vaccine, coverage is incomplete, and there is no approved treatment for YFV infection. Despite advancements in the field, animal models for YFV infection remain scarce, and care must be taken to select an appropriate model for a given hypothesis. Small animal models require either adapted YFV strains or immunocompromised hosts. Non-human primates (NHPs) recapitulate human disease, but they require specialized facilities and training, are often in short supply and cost-prohibitive, and can present ethical concerns. The limitations in studying the mosquito vectors for YFV infection include inconsistency in the laboratory environment, the requirement for a high containment insectary, and difficulty in maintaining sylvatic mosquitoes. In this review, we discuss the roles of animal models and arthropod vector studies in understanding epidemic emergence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1578
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • animal models
  • arthropod vectors
  • yellow fever virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Virology


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